Bangudae Petroglyphs
of Ulsan City
The Bangudae Petroglyphs are a set of pre-historic stone-age carvings on flat vertical rock faces sheltered by
a slightly overhanging cliff, similar to surfaces used in historic times for Buddhist and Folk-Shamanic carvings
of deities.  This carved-area is about 8m wide and 5m high, around a meter above the water-level on steep
shale cliffs beside the Daegok-cheon Stream, a branch of the Taehwa River that runs eastward and joins the
East Sea in Ulsan City.  Around ten surrounding rock-faces have a small number of engravings as well.  The
main carvings face toward the north, and they shine for a while at sunset.  They were carved in Korea's late
Stone-Age Neolithic period, about 3500 BCE to 2500 BCE (just before the Mumun Pottery Period 1500–300
BCE that produced the Goindol megaliths).  They are designated as Korea's National Treasure #285.
Three hundred and four images have been found, with anthropomorphic themes (depicting the body/face of
a human) and zoomorphic themes (showing sea and land animals), with hunting and fishing tools; and there
are indeterminate markings whose themes or shapes are hard to identify.   They include 166 animal-figures,
mostly cetaceans such as whales on the left side and center; and tigers, leopards, wolves, foxes, raccoons,
wild pigs, deer, sea-turtles, seals, salmon-like fishes & sea-birds on the right side and center.  

There are also a dozen Human figures, shown either in side-views of the whole body with exaggerated penises
or front images of men with mask-like faces spreading their four limbs;  these include engravings of people
hunting animals with bows, raising their hands, and playing a long rods like musical instruments, all recalling
hunting and religious acts.   108 of the images are still unidentified motifs, some slightly abstract.